Dams, dykes and levees are sensitive structures built either to retain water for a variety of purposes (energy production, water storage, irrigation, preservation, recreation …) or to bring a protection against natural disasters (floods, waves, storm surges, tsunamis …).
Buidling, raising and expanding
The Reinforced Earth® solution has been used to build various types of dams and structures associated to dams:
- Embankment dams
- Overflow dams
- Saddle dams
- Check dams
- Dry dams
- Dam extensions
- Intake structures
- Outlet structures
Reinforced Earth® MSE retaining walls are a tested solution for building earth dams, dam crests and abutments. Building a vertical or sloping Reinforced Earth® structure will dramatically reduce the volume of backfill when compared with traditional profiles. Our acclaimed design approach verifies internal and external stabilities, soil suitability, and incorporates impervious barriers as well as the necessary drainage control.
ArmaGreen® and ArmaStone® solutions are adapted to cases for which steep slopes are considered and provide an aesthetically pleasing appearance to satisfy the requirements of the local communities.
Crest raising to increase the height of the structures becomes simple and straightforward by building back-to-back Reinforced Earth® walls. We evaluate stresses at the base of the existing crest and assess the bearing capacity for any additional load cases.
Expanding the width of an existing dam while maintaining a right of way is simplified by using a combination of temporary and permanent earth retention solutions. Terratrel® and GeoTrel™ are ideally suited for phased earth retention sequences.
Flexible construction solution for dykes and levees
Dykes and levees are essential structures for river training, flood protection and coastal protection. The TerraDyke™ concept developed by Terre Armée is a customized engineered solution particularly well adapted to the construction of dykes and levees in coastal and inland environments.
This state-of-the-art technique is based on the use of geotextile tubes which constitute the core of the structures. In addition to these tubes, TerraDyke™ structures are composed of other geosynthetic components such as geotextiles, waterproofing membranes, drainage geocomposites and site specific erosion protection against currents, waves and run off.
TerraDyke™ technology is a soft solution offering the advantages of geosynthetic materials and locally available fill materials. In specific situations for which the footprint has to be minimized or for high structures, Reinforced Earth® dykes and levees, either with vertical or steep faces are the solution with proper adaptation to the site conditions.
When basal reinforcement is necessary due to the nature of the foundation soil of the structures, ArmaLynk® and ArmaGrid® geogrids will provide the right answer.
Protecting and preserving
Within our “Protect” line of solutions, we integrate erosion control and natural risk hazard protection into your project. We provide design and materials to install erosion protection solutions such as TechRevetment™ fabric formed concrete mattresses which are used to provide protection on the river or sea side of the levees and dykes. TechRevetment™ can be installed in under water conditions. On the land side of the structures, TerraGreen® erosion protection blankets and turf reinforcement mats or ArmaWeb® geocells provide greening support in addition to erosion protection.
Earth dams, dykes and levees are complex structures with engineering constraints related to geotechnics, hydrogeology and hydraulics. Our geosynthetics products provide the solutions to cope with the commonly met issues as far as filtration and separation (TerraTextile™) and drainage (TerraFlow™) are concerned.
Our Reinforced Earth® retaining walls can be combined with UV resistant linings on their exposed faces to provide water tightness. We have also developed a solution for fitting a geomembrane on the back face of our Reinforced Earth® concrete panels, thus providing for waterproofing protected from nuisances such as floating debris, ice or vandalism on the exposed faces. Geosynthetic clay liners are frequently used for hydraulic works applications and our TerraLine™ GCL products will answer the requirements of the projects.
Rehabilitating, strengthening and upgrading
Strengthening century old dams built for example of cyclopic concrete masonry concrete or under designed dams can be achieved by improving their stability or increasing their overflow capacity by means of Reinforced Earth® solutions.
Combined with deep in-situ waterproofing techniques, Reinforced Earth® embankments become efficient geo barriers. This applies to new built structures and also to the raising or existing dykes and levees, which is becoming an urgency due the raising of the sea level and the increasing severity of the climatic events. Our engineers will analyze the health of the existing structures and will develop solutions as required to:
- improve stability with facing replacement or overlays, tieback stability measure, ground improvement and structural retrofit measures
- increase the protection or storage capacity brought by the structures by increasing the height and upgrading the waterproofing
Our flagship technique, Reinforced Earth®, is based on the principle of the friction between soil and reinforcements creating a permanent and predictable bond. At the origin of all mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls on the market today, we are continuously perfecting this ingenious technique.
Under the umbrella of TerraTextile™, our woven geotextile solutions address construction challenges associated with soft and poorly draining soils. The solution provides long term separation, filtration and hydrostatic pressure control that in turn constricts potential surface and subgrade deformations.